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Tuesday, February 13, 2024
IRBAS Volume 12 Issue 2 will publish in Apr-June 2024.
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Current Issue April, 2024
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Navigating Global Markets: Unveiling the Role of Human Capital, Market Orientation, and SME Internationalization

The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises is widely recognized as a key driver of economic growth and competitiveness. This research aims to investigate the mediating role of market orientation in the relationship between human capital and SME internationalization. Drawing upon the resource-based view and market orientation literature, a conceptual model is proposed to examine the association between human capital and SME internationalization and the mediating effect of market orientation. A quantitative research approach, this study employs a structured questionnaire administered to a diverse sample of SMEs operating across various industries. The collected data is subjected to rigorous statistical analyses, including regression analysis and mediation analysis. This is based on the empirical investigation of a sample of 150 small- and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan. The results reveal a positive relationship between human capital and SME internationalization. Human capital significantly affects SME’s Internationalization with β value as 0.29. The human capital effect on Market orientation shows β value as 0.82. Market orientation significantly affects SMEs Internationalization with β value as 0.53. Further, Market orientation mediates the relationship between human capital and SME Internationalization with an effect of 0.44 at t= 3.02 and LLCI=0.22 and ULCI=0.64. The results underscore the critical mediating role played by market orientation. The implications of these findings are highly significant for both SME practitioners and policymakers. The study highlights the importance of investing in human capital development to enhance SME internationalization. Moreover, it emphasizes the strategic significance of market orientation in facilitating the effective utilization of human capital for successful internationalization outcomes.
Keywords: SME Internationalization, Human Capital, Market Orientation, Resource-based View, Policymakers.

Optimization of FDM Printing Parameters for Improved Mechanical Properties in 3D Printed ASTM D638 and D256 Standard Samples

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is regarded as an incredibly convenient manufacturing technique because it allows the construction of 3D artifacts. One of the most popular AM processes for creating functioning prototypes and components is fused deposition modeling (FDM). In FDM, the quality of printed components is greatly influenced by printing parameters settings. Studying the effect of FDM printing parameters on output responses is crucial in ensuring the quality of printed items. Therefore, this study investigates experimentally the influence of FDM printing parameters, i.e. print speed, flow rate, and extrusion temperature, on 3D printed Polylactic Acid (PLA) parts, considering surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, tensile strength, hardness, and impact strength. Dog-bone samples and impact test samples conforming to ASTM D638 type IV and ASTM D256 respectively were chosen for experimental testing. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array method was utilized to design the experimental runs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to assess the statistical significance of FDM printing parameters. For single response optimization, the Taguchi-based Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratios were utilized. To optimize multiple responses, a combination of Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) and Criteria Importance through Inter-criteria Correlation (CRITIC), along with Taguchi-based S/N ratios, was applied. Based on the ANOVA results, flow rate was found to be the most significant parameter affecting all the measured responses, whereas extrusion temperature was found to be insignificant for all measured responses. However, print speed was found to be significant only for surface roughness. The optimized 3D printing process parameters obtained for multi responses were flow rate = 100% (level 2), print speed = 90 mm/s (level 3), and extrusion temperature = 210 (level 2).
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), Multi-Objective Optimization based on Ratio Analysis (MOORA), Criteria Importance through Inter-criteria Correlation (CRITIC), Taguchi Analysis.

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