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Academy of IRMBR Volume  4, November, 2016
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Studies on Some Prevalence Types of Schizophrenia in Patients of Tertiary Care Hospitals of Province Balochistan in Relation to the Occurrence of Some Heavy Metals Responsible for Chronic Mental Disorders

Present study was designed to observe prevalence and category of schizophrenia patients in tertiary care hospitals. In this study, we have also focused on those heavy metals i.e., zinc, copper, iron that were involve in the onset of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder characterized by positive symptoms and negative symptoms that includes, i.e., delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder. The delusions are misrepresentations of reality, whereas hallucinations are concerned with sensory events. Schizophrenia is classified into five types, i.e., Paranoid, Catatonic, Simple, Hebephrenic & Undifferentiated type, and among them, the paranoid type was most prevalent, while Simple and Hebephrenic were the second most common types, whereas Catatonic & Undifferentiated type were rarely examined. Therefore, present study was conducted by generating self-made questionnaire related to the patient's personal history, factors that trigger the schizophrenia and their symptoms. During surveys, the patients were examined and their blood sample were collected to measure the level of some heavy metals i.e., Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) & Iron (Fe) in their blood that could be involved in the onset of schizophrenia were also examined. The obtained results of the present study proved that both Zinc & Copper were present in excess amount in blood serum of schizophrenic patients, which certainly trigger the onset of schizophrenia. Furthermore, it had been observed that age, gender and marital status of patient have no dependence on Schizophrenia, however, the onset of schizophrenia was found to be late in females than in males. Key Words: Prevalence Types of Schizophrenia, Tertiary Care Hospitals, Heavy Metals, Chronic Mental Disorders.


Valuation of Serum Ferritin Level and Frequency of HBV and HCV Infections in Multi-transfused Major β-Thalassemia Patients Connected with Consanguinity

As thalassemia is a genetic blood disorder across the whole world and is caused by imbalance in the synthesis of globin chains of haemoglobin and excessive breakdown of red blood cell. Thalassemia can be divided into two major categories i.e., α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia because of imbalance in the synthesis of α &β globin chains of haemoglobin. As thalassemia patient are not able to make normal haemoglobin which is necessary for the production of normal red blood cells, therefore regular blood transfusions is only treatment for thalassemia patients because it allows them to lead relatively a normal life, but during blood transfusion, patient got various infections like hypersplenism, chronic hepatitis (resulting from infection with viruses that cause hepatitis B and/or C), HIV infection, venous thrombosis, and osteoporosis, which had been proved to be lethal. Therefore, present study was conducted in thalassemia centre of Quetta city (Fatimid foundation) to estimate serum ferritin level and the incidence of Hepatitis-B (HBV) and Hepatitis-C (HCV) viral infections in multi-transfused major β- thalassemia patients in relation to their consanguinity. During the survey, a total of 100 cases were targeted, in which 50 individuals were kept in normal and 50 were affected with β- thalassemia major, which was then further categories into four ethnic and age groups, gender, age at present, age at diagnosis, blood group, pedigree, their family history and information about their sibs. The observed mean age at thalassemia diagnosis was 13 months to four years. From the obtained results, it had been observed that the mean blood serum ferritin level was found to be high (>500ng/dl) in all β- thalassemia major due to multiple blood transfusion. Furthermore, prevalence rate of Hepatitis-B virus (HBV) was 10% and the Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) was 30%, hence revealed that incidence of Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) was found to greater than Hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in thalassemia major patients. Key Words: Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis-C Virus (HCV), Serum Ferritin, β-thalassemia Major, Consanguinity.


Impact of Job Satisfaction on Employee’s Performance

The aim of this research study is to build an understanding regarding the impact job satisfaction on employee’s performance of Pakistani college teachers. Enhancing organizational commitment among the faculty members is an essential element because that will eventually result in their higher employee commitment, enhancing retention and they will perform better and job satisfaction enhanced. By identifying the impact of job satisfaction in educational sector will help organizations to foster organizational commitment and enhance their employee’s performance. This study also aims to develop a course of action for college’s administration to come up with practices which would enable them to attract and retain top level faculty and boost up their performance. A cross section research was done with the help questionnaire, which consists of 20 items and which was distributed among 204 employees of the selected college lectures, assistant professors and associate professor. SPSS 20.0 is used to analysis the data and it was found that job satisfaction has a significant relationships with employee’s performance. It also identifies the relationship between these in the perspectives of Pakistan. Key Words: Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Job Performance.
HAMID MEHMOOD and SAAD MASOOD 282-290 Download(267)

Effect of Carbonated Drinks on Health & Cause of Various Diseases in Children and Youngsters in educational sector of Pakistan

Over the last few decades, soft drink consumption has been steadily increasing especially at an alarming rate among adolescents. Soft drinks have been associated with positive energy intake. An unhealthy diet along with a lack of physical activity is a major risk factor for health problems like overweight and obesity, dental erosion and digestive system. Children and adolescents are becoming the major victim of the consumption of these highly caloric drinks. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the consumption of soft drinks among children especially in youngsters in educational sector of the Pakistan. A quantitative survey was conducted among the 20-25 age students in the COMSATS University Sahiwal Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and SPSS was used to enter and analyze the data. All the participants in this study indicates that the consumption of soft drink is effecting the health. Out of 200 participants 198 learners indicate that highly consumption of soft drink is the cause of diseases like obesity, osteoporosis, dental erosion and digestive system. Key Words: Carbonated Drinks, Diseases, Health & Care, Caloric Drinks.

Impact of Green Market on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case of K & N’s

This study aims to give insight into the effect of green marketing on customers purchasing behaviors. For this purpose, environment and environmental issues which are the solid grounds for emergence of green marketing will be discussed. Too much Literature is not available in Pakistan on this topic because there is very little social awareness among public on this topic. Moreover there are limited ISO certified industries in Pakistan taking environment friendly initiatives. A structured questionnaire will be used for data collection from industry experts, managers, consumers and various public. Multiple ways are there for green marketing by the companies taking environment friendly initiatives. These ways are adopted in all marketing mix operations of companies like Product, pricing, promotion and distributions. Few important dimensions of green marketing will be treated as independent variables and their effect on consumer purchase behavior will be studied. These are Eco friendly life style of consumers and green product features. Key Words: Green Marketing, Environment, Marketing Mix, Eco Friendly Life Style, Consumer Purchase Behaviour.

Ethical Issues in Outdoor Advertisement: A Case from Punjab Province of Pakistan

The paper aims to examine the ethical controversy in the outdoor advertisement of popular products and brands in Pakistan from Islamic perspective. The study attempts to check the level of offensive behavior of viewers towards theses outdoor advertisements and will also investigate how these kinds of advertisements affect culture of the society and religious perception of people. A survey was conducted at three popular universities of Sahiwal Pakistan, including 300 students from Bahauddin Zakariya University sub campus Sahiwal, University of Faisalabad sub campus Sahiwal and Comsats Institute of Information Technology Sahiwal. Questionnaire utilized for the purpose of survey was comprised of two sections: first portion enclosed a list of five popular brands and second portion involved a list of ten elements aimed to measure religious consciousness of respondents. Data was analyzed by utilizing SPSS and further tested to check its reliability and validity. Descriptive statistics testes, regression, correlations test were adapted to examine the data. Consumer offensiveness level and controversial outdoor advertisement of popular brands were found to be extremely associated with each other. Sexiest images, vulgarity in outdoor advertisements were significantly associated with consumer level of offensiveness. This research study will leads towards vital managerial and practical implications that further determines critical ethical issues presented in outdoor advertisement that are contrary to the mandate of Islam. Key Words: Ethics, Outdoor, Advertisement, Punjab Pakistan.
HAMID MEHMOOD and ZAHID ZAHOOR 310-316 Download(329)

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